A Particular Gift of The Holy Spirit
The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick gives grace for the state into which people enter through sickness.
Through the sacrament a gift of the Holy Spirit is given that renews confidence and faith in God and strengthens against temptations to discouragement, despair and anguish from suffering and serious illness, infirmity or in the face of death. It prevents the believer from losing Christian hope in God’s justice, truth and salvation.
By the sacred Anointing of the Sick and the prayer of the priest the whole Church commends those who are ill to the suffering and glorified Lord, that he may raise them up and save them. This assistance from the Lord by the power of his Spirit is meant to lead the sick person to healing of the soul, but also of the body if such is God’s will.
Catechism of the Catholic Church: 1499-1535
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Who Can Receive This Sacrament?
Any person who is seriously ill, in danger of death, weakened by old age (even if no serious illness is present), or preparing for serious surgery due to illness may receive the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick.
One should not necessarily wait until they are gravely ill to receive this sacrament. In addition, those who have received the Anointing of the Sick and recovered, but fall ill again, or those whose condition becomes more serious during the same illness, may receive the sacrament again.
Catechism of the Catholic Church: 1499, 1511-1517, 1520-1525